Current Articles

Advanced Transportation Equipment
Aerodynamic-Parameter Identification and Attitude Control of Quad-Rotor Model with CIFER and Adaptive LADRC
Sen Yang, Leiping Xi, Jiaxing Hao, Wenjie Wang
2021, 34: 1. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00524-5
[Abstract](514) [FullText HTML] (503) [PDF 2106KB](5)
Current research on quadrotor modeling mainly focuses on theoretical analysis methods and experimental methods, which have problems such as weak adaptability to the environment, high test costs, and long durations. Additionally, the PID controller, which is currently widely used in quadrotors, requires improvement in anti-interference. Therefore, the aforementioned research has considerable practical significance for the modeling and controller design of quadrotors with strong coupling and nonlinear characteristics. In the present research, an aerodynamic-parameter estimation method and an adaptive attitude control method based on the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) are designed separately. First, the motion model, dynamics model, and control allocation model of the quad-rotor are established according to the aerodynamic theory and Newton–Euler equations. Next, a more accurate attitude model of the quad-rotor is obtained by using a tool called CIFER to identify the aerodynamic parameters with large uncertainties in the frequency domain. Then, an adaptive attitude decoupling controller based on the LADRC is designed to solve the problem of the poor anti-interference ability of the quad-rotor and adjust the key control parameter b0 automatically according to the change in the moment of inertia in real time. Finally, the proposed approach is verified on a semi-physical simulation platform, and it increases the tracking speed and accuracy of the controller, as well as the anti-disturbance performance and robustness of the control system. This paper proposes an effective aerodynamic-parameter identification method using CIFER and an adaptive attitude decoupling controller with a sufficient anti-interference ability.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Isolated Loaded Tires with Different Tread Patterns: Experiment and Simulation
Haichao Zhou, Zhen Jiang, Guolin Wang, Shupei Zhang
2021, 34: 6. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00528-1
[Abstract](519) [FullText HTML] (509) [PDF 4424KB](3)
The current research of tire aerodynamics mainly focus on the isolated and simplified tread tire. Compared with the real complex pattern tire, the tread pattern structure and deformed profile of a loaded tire has a greatly influence on tire aerodynamic drag. However, the mechanisms of the isolated loaded tires with different tread patterns effects on the aerodynamic drag are subjects worthy of discussion. The purpose of this study is to experimentally and computationally investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of three tires 185/65 R14 with different patterns under loaded. A wind tunnel test model was first established using three-dimensional (3D) printing with a ratio of 1:1, and the pressure coefficients Cp of the three tires with different patterns are measured. The paper then conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for analyzing the pressure and flow characteristics. The accuracy of CFD simulation is verified by comparing the simulation results with the test results of pressure coefficients Cp, and they are of good consistency. While, the general analysis of pressure coefficients Cp results of the three tires indicates high-pressure area on the windward surface, and occurrence of low-pressure area on the leeward surface, the pressure coefficients Cp of all three tires decreased firstly and then increased along in the air flow direction. The authors finally analyzed the effect of tread patterns on the flow field around the tire and revealed the differences between flow characteristics and aerodynamic drag. The results show that, angle of tire lateral groove has great effect on the flow field characteristics such that; the more the angle of lateral groove agrees with the air flow direction, the less the flow separation and flow vortices, and a minimum observable aerodynamic drag. The research provides a guidance for the design of low aerodynamic drag tires, and helps to illustrate the impact of tire aerodynamics on the car body in the future.
Cylinder Pressure Prediction of An HCCI Engine Using Deep Learning
Halit Yaşar, Gültekin Çağıl, Orhan Torkul, Merve Şişci
2021, 34: 7. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00525-4
[Abstract](505) [FullText HTML] (488) [PDF 1750KB](6)
Engine tests are both costly and time consuming in developing a new internal combustion engine. Therefore, it is of great importance to predict engine characteristics with high accuracy using artificial intelligence. Thus, it is possible to reduce engine testing costs and speed up the engine development process. Deep Learning is an effective artificial intelligence method that shows high performance in many research areas through its ability to learn high-level hidden features in data samples. The present paper describes a method to predict the cylinder pressure of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine for various excess air coefficients by using Deep Neural Network, which is one of the Deep Learning methods and is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Deep Learning results were compared with the ANN and experimental results. The results show that the difference between experimental and the Deep Neural Network (DNN) results were less than 1%. The best results were obtained by Deep Learning method. The cylinder pressure was predicted with a maximum accuracy of 97.83% of the experimental value by using ANN. On the other hand, the accuracy value was increased up to 99.84% using DNN. These results show that the DNN method can be used effectively to predict cylinder pressures of internal combustion engines.
Experimental Investigation and Optimization Design of Multi-Support Pipeline System
Xiantao Zhang, Wei Liu, Yamei Zhang, Yujie Zhao
2021, 34: 10. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00530-7
[Abstract](513) [FullText HTML] (491) [PDF 3033KB](3)
The design of aircraft hydraulic pipeline system is limited by many factors, such as the integrity of aviation structure or narrow installation space, so the limited clamp support position should be considered. This paper studied the frequency adjustment and dynamic responses reduction of the multi-support pipeline system through experiment and numerical simulation. To avoid the resonance of pipeline system, we proposed two different optimization programs, one was to avoid aero-engine working range, and another was to avoid aircraft hydraulic pump pulsation range. An optimization method was introduced in this paper to obtain the optimal clamp position. The experiments were introduced to validate the optimization results, and the theoretical optimization results can agree well with the test. With regard to avoiding the aero-engine vibration frequency, the test results revealed that the first natural frequency was far from the aero-engine vibration frequency. And the dynamic frequency sweep results showed that no resonance occurred on the pipeline in the engine vibration frequency range after optimization. Additionally, with regard to avoiding the pump vibration frequency, the test results revealed that natural frequencies have been adjusted and far from the pump vibration frequency. And the dynamic frequency sweep results showed that pipeline under optimal clamp position cannot lead to resonance. The sensitivity analysis results revealed the changing relationships between different clamp position and natural frequency. This study can provide helpful guidance on the analysis and design of practical aircraft pipeline.
Research onKey Issues of Consistency Analysis of Vehicle Steering Characteristics
Yanhua Liu, Xin Guan, Pingping Lu, Rui Guo
2021, 34: 11. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00523-6
[Abstract](487) [FullText HTML] (495) [PDF 2062KB](0)
Given the global lack of effective analysis methods for the impact of design parameter tolerance on performance deviation in the vehicle proof-of-concept stage, it is difficult to decompose performance tolerance to design parameter tolerance. This study proposes a set of consistency analysis methods for vehicle steering performance. The process of consistency analysis and control of automotive performance in the conceptual design phase is proposed for the first time. A vehicle dynamics model is constructed, and the multi-objective optimization software Isight is used to optimize the steering performance of the car. Sensitivity analysis is used to optimize the design performance value. The tolerance interval of the performance is obtained by comparing the original car performance value with the optimized value. With the help of layer-by-layer decomposition theory and interval mathematics, automotive performance tolerance has been decomposed into design parameter tolerance. Through simulation and real vehicle experiments, the validity of the consistency analysis and control method presented in this paper are verified. The decomposition from parameter tolerance to performance tolerance can be achieved at the conceptual design stage.
An Overview of Self-piercing Riveting Process with Focus on Joint Failures, Corrosion Issues and Optimisation Techniques
Hua Qian Ang
2021, 34: 2. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00526-3
[Abstract](4806) [FullText HTML] (5450) [PDF 4095KB](21)
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) is a cold forming technique used to fasten together two or more sheets of materials with a rivet without the need to predrill a hole. The application of SPR in the automotive sector has become increasingly popular mainly due to the growing use of lightweight materials in transportation applications. However, SPR joining of these advanced light materials remains a challenge as these materials often lack a good combination of high strength and ductility to resist the large plastic deformation induced by the SPR process. In this paper, SPR joints of advanced materials and their corresponding failure mechanisms are discussed, aiming to provide the foundation for future improvement of SPR joint quality. This paper is divided into three major sections: 1) joint failures focusing on joint defects originated from the SPR process and joint failure modes under different mechanical loading conditions, 2) joint corrosion issues, and 3) joint optimisation via process parameters and advanced techniques.
Research Status, Critical Technologies, and Development Trends of Hydraulic Pressure Pulsation Attenuator
Yan Wang, Tongsheng Shen, Chunsen Tan, Jian Fu, Shengrong Guo
2021, 34: 14. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00532-z
[Abstract](2525) [FullText HTML] (2446) [PDF 2338KB](16)
Hydraulic pumps are a positive displacement pump whose working principle causes inherent output flow pulsation. Flow pulsation produces pressure pulsation when encountering liquid resistance. Pressure pulsation spreads in the pipeline and causes vibration, noise, damage, and even pipeline rupture and major safety accidents. With the development of airborne hydraulic systems with high pressure, power, and flow rate, the hazards of vibration and noise caused by pressure pulsation are also amplified, severely restricting the application and development of hydraulic systems. In this review paper, the mechanism, harm, and suppression method of pressure pulsation in hydraulic systems are analyzed. Then, the classification and characteristics of pulsation attenuators according to different working principles are described. Furthermore, the critical technology of simulation design, matching method with airborne piston pumps, and preliminary design method of pulsation attenuators are proposed. Finally, the development trend of pulsation attenuators is prospected. This paper provides a reference for the research and application of pressure pulsation attenuators.
Milling Force Model for Aviation Aluminum Alloy: Academic Insight and Perspective Analysis
Zhenjing Duan, Changhe Li, Wenfeng Ding, Yanbin Zhang, Min Yang, Teng Gao, Huajun Cao, Xuefeng Xu, Dazhong Wang, Cong Mao, Hao Nan Li, Gupta Munish Kumar, Zafar Said, Sujan Debnath, Muhammad Jamil, Hafiz Muhammad Ali
2021, 34: 18. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00536-9
[Abstract](2997) [FullText HTML] (3214) [PDF 3874KB](11)
Aluminum alloy is the main structural material of aircraft, launch vehicle, spaceship, and space station and is processed by milling. However, tool wear and vibration are the bottlenecks in the milling process of aviation aluminum alloy. The machining accuracy and surface quality of aluminum alloy milling depend on the cutting parameters, material mechanical properties, machine tools, and other parameters. In particular, milling force is the crucial factor to determine material removal and workpiece surface integrity. However, establishing the prediction model of milling force is important and difficult because milling force is the result of multiparameter coupling of process system. The research progress of cutting force model is reviewed from three modeling methods: empirical model, finite element simulation, and instantaneous milling force model. The problems of cutting force modeling are also determined. In view of these problems, the future work direction is proposed in the following four aspects: (1) high-speed milling is adopted for the thin-walled structure of large aviation with large cutting depth, which easily produces high residual stress. The residual stress should be analyzed under this particular condition. (2) Multiple factors (e.g., eccentric swing milling parameters, lubrication conditions, tools, tool and workpiece deformation, and size effect) should be considered comprehensively when modeling instantaneous milling forces, especially for micro milling and complex surface machining. (3) The database of milling force model, including the corresponding workpiece materials, working condition, cutting tools (geometric figures and coatings), and other parameters, should be established. (4) The effect of chatter on the prediction accuracy of milling force cannot be ignored in thin-walled workpiece milling. (5) The cutting force of aviation aluminum alloy milling under the condition of minimum quantity lubrication (mql) and nanofluid mql should be predicted.
Friction-Induced Nanofabrication: A Review
Bingjun Yu, Linmao Qian
2021, 34: 32. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00550-x
[Abstract](516) [FullText HTML] (503) [PDF 7469KB](2)
As the bridge between basic principles and applications of nanotechnology, nanofabrication methods play significant role in supporting the development of nanoscale science and engineering, which is changing and improving the production and lifestyle of the human. Photo lithography and other alternative technologies, such as nanoimprinting, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam cutting, and scanning probe lithography, have brought great progress of semiconductor industry, IC manufacturing and micro/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices. However, there remains a lot of challenges, relating to the resolution, cost, speed, and so on, in realizing high-quality products with further development of nanotechnology. None of the existing techniques can satisfy all the needs in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the same time, and it is essential to explore new nanofabrication methods. As a newly developed scanning probe microscope (SPM)-based lithography, friction-induced nanofabrication provides opportunities for maskless, flexible, low-damage, low-cost and environment-friendly processing on a wide variety of materials, including silicon, quartz, glass surfaces, and so on. It has been proved that this fabrication route provides with a broad application prospect in the fabrication of nanoimprint templates, microfluidic devices, and micro/nano optical structures. This paper hereby involved the principals and operations of friction-induced nanofabrication, including friction-induced selective etching, and the applications were reviewed as well for looking ahead at opportunities and challenges with nanotechnology development. The present review will not only enrich the knowledge in nanotribology, but also plays a positive role in promoting SPM-based nanofabrication.
Chip Formation Mechanism of Inconel 718: A Review of Models and Approaches
Chun Liu, Min Wan, Weihong Zhang, Yun Yang
2021, 34: 34. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00552-9
[Abstract](1243) [FullText HTML] (1073) [PDF 2364KB](42)
Inconel 718, a nickel, chrome and iron alloy, has special advantages, such as high-temperature strength, thermal resistance and corrosion resistance, which facilitate wide usage in the aerospace industry, especially in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. However, machining this alloy is correlated closely with the material's inherent properties such as excellent combination of strength, hardness and toughness, low thermal conductivity and the tendency to adhere to cutting tools. This nickel alloy also contains inclusions of hard abrasive carbide particles that lead to work-hardening of the workpiece material and thus abrasive wear of the cutting tool. That is, the machining of Inconel 718 is always influenced by high mechanical and thermal loads. This article reviews the chip formation mechanism of Inconel 718. One of the main characteristics in machining of Inconel 718 is that it will produce serrated or segmented chips in a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. Existing studies show that the chip serration or segmentation by shear localization affects the machined surface integrity, and also contributes to the chip's evacuation and the automation of machining operations. Thus, research conclusion indicates that the serrated or segmented chip phenomenon is desirable in reducing the level of cutting force, and detailed analysis of models and approaches to understand the chip formation mechanism of Inconel 718 is vital for machining this alloy effectively and efficiently. Therefore, this article presents some summaries on the models and approaches on the chip formation in machining of Inconel 718.
Chassis Coordinated Control for Full X-by-Wire Vehicles-A Review
Lei Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Zhenpo Wang, Junjun Deng, David G. Dorrell
2021, 34: 42. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00555-6
[Abstract](1114) [FullText HTML] (1064) [PDF 6453KB](22)
An X-by-wire chassis can improve the kinematic characteristics of human-vehicle closed-loop system and thus active safety especially under emergency scenarios via enabling chassis coordinated control. This paper aims to provide a complete and systematic survey on chassis coordinated control methods for full X-by-wire vehicles, with the primary goal of summarizing recent reserch advancements and stimulating innovative thoughts. Driving condition identification including driver's operation intention, critical vehicle states and road adhesion condition and integrated control of X-by-wire chassis subsystems constitute the main framework of a chassis coordinated control scheme. Under steering and braking maneuvers, different driving condition identification methods are described in this paper. These are the trigger conditions and the basis for the implementation of chassis coordinated control. For the vehicles equipped with steering-by-wire, braking-by-wire and/or wire-controlled-suspension systems, state-of-the-art chassis coordinated control methods are reviewed including the coordination of any two or three chassis subsystems. Finally, the development trends are discussed.
Intelligent Manufacturing Technology
Face Grinding Surface Quality of High Volume Fraction SiCp/Al Composite Materials
Xu Zhao, Yadong Gong, Guiqiang Liang, Ming Cai, Bing Han
2021, 34: 3. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00527-2
[Abstract](2469) [FullText HTML] (2484) [PDF 8356KB](6)
The existing research on SiCp/Al composite machining mainly focuses on the machining parameters or surface morphology. However, the surface quality of SiCp/Al composites with a high volume fraction has not been extensively studied. In this study, 32 SiCp/Al specimens with a high volume fraction were prepared and their machining parameters measured. The surface quality of the specimens was then tested and the effect of the grinding parameters on the surface quality was analyzed. The grinding quality of the composite specimens was comprehensively analyzed taking the grinding force, friction coefficient, and roughness parameters as the evaluation standards. The best grinding parameters were obtained by analyzing the surface morphology. The results show that, a higher spindle speed should be chosen to obtain a better surface quality. The final surface quality is related to the friction coefficient, surface roughness, and fragmentation degree as well as the quantity and distribution of the defects. Lower feeding amount, lower grinding depth and appropriately higher spindle speed should be chosen to obtain better surface quality. Lower feeding amount, higher grinding depth and spindle speed should be chosen to balance grind efficiently and surface quality. This study proposes a systematic evaluation method, which can be used to guide the machining of SiCp/Al composites with a high volume fraction.
Water-Jet Cavitation Shock Bulging as Novel Microforming Technique
Fuzhu Li, Haiyang Fan, Yuqin Guo, Zhipeng Chen, Xu Wang, Ruitao Li, Hong Liu, Yun Wang
2021, 34: 4. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00518-3
[Abstract](2456) [FullText HTML] (2450) [PDF 2564KB](7)
With the continuous expansion of the application range of microelectromechanical systems, microdevice forming technology has achieved remarkable results. However, it is challenging to develop new microforming processes that are low cost, environmentally friendly, and highly flexible; the high-energy shock wave in a cavitation bubble's collapse process is used as the loading force. Herein, a new process for the microbulging of the water-jet cavitation is proposed. A series of experiments involving the water-jet cavitation shock microbulging process for TA2 titanium foil is performed on an experimental system. The microforming feasibility of the water-jet cavitation is investigated by characterizing the shape of the formed part. Subsequently, the effects of the main parameters of the water-jet cavitation on the bulging profile, forming depth, surface roughness, and bulging thickness distribution of TA2 titanium foil are revealed. The results show that the plastic deformation increases nonlinearly with the incident pressure. When the incident pressure is 20 MPa, the maximum deformation exceeds 240 μm, and the thickness thinning ratio changes within 10%. The microbulging feasibility of water-jet cavitation is verified by this phenomenon.
Investigation on Reduction of Pressure Fluctuation for a Double-Suction Centrifugal Pump
Qianqian Li, Shiyang Li, Peng Wu, Bin Huang, Dazhuan Wu
2021, 34: 12. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00505-8
[Abstract](2469) [FullText HTML] (2410) [PDF 3535KB](19)
Double-suction centrifugal pumps have been applied extensively in many areas, and the significance of pressure fluctuations inside these pumps with large power is becoming increasingly important. In this study, a double-suction centrifugal pump with a high-demand for vibration and noise was redesigned by increasing the flow uniformity at the impeller discharge, implemented by combinations of more than two parameters. First, increasing the number of the impeller blades was intended to enhance the bounding effect that the blades imposed on the fluid. Subsequently, increasing the radial gap between the impeller and volute was applied to reduce the rotor-stator interaction. Finally, the staggered arrangement was optimized to weaken the efficacy of the interference superposition. Based on numerical simulation, the steady and unsteady characteristics of the pump models were calculated. From the fluctuation analysis in the frequency domain, the dimensionless pressure fluctuation amplitude at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics, located on the monitoring points in the redesigned pumps (both with larger radial gap), are reduced a lot. Further, in the volute of the model with new impellers staggered at 12°, the average value for the dimensionless pressure fluctuation amplitude decreases to 6% of that in prototype pump. The dimensionless root-mean-square pressure contour on the mid-span of the impeller tends to be more uniform in the redesigned models (both with larger radial gap); similarly, the pressure contour on the mid-section of the volute presents good uniformity in these models, which in turn demonstrating a reduction in the pressure fluctuation intensity. The results reveal the mechanism of pressure fluctuation reduction in a double-suction centrifugal pump, and the results of this study could provide a reference for pressure fluctuation reduction and vibration performance reinforcement of double-suction centrifugal pumps and other pumps.
Investigation of Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Surface Burnishing Process on 7075-T6 Aluminum
Zhenyu Zhou, Qiuyang Zheng, Cong Ding, Guanglei Yu, Guangjian Peng, Zhongyu Piao
2021, 34: 19. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00540-z
[Abstract](2460) [FullText HTML] (2414) [PDF 8358KB](9)
A novel two-dimensional ultrasonic surface burnishing process (2D-USBP) is proposed. 7075-T6 aluminum samples are processed by a custom-designed 2D-USBP setup. Parameter optimization of 2D-USBP is conducted to determine the best processing strategy of 7075-T6 aluminum. A uniform design method is utilized to optimize the 2D-USBP process. U13(133) and U7(72) tables are established to conduct parameter optimization. Burnishing depth, spindle speed, and feed rate are taken as the control parameters. The surface roughness and Vickers hardness are taken as the evaluation indicators. It establishes the active control models for surface quality. Dry wear tests are conducted to compare the wear-resistance of the 2D-USBP treated sample and the original sample. Results show that the machining quality of 2D-USBP is best under 0.24 mm burnishing depth, 5000 r/min spindle speed, and 25 mm/min feed rate. The surface roughness Sa of the sample is reduced from 2517.758 to 50.878 nm, and the hardness of the sample surface is improved from 167 to 252 HV. Under the lower load, the wear mechanism of the 2D-USBP treated sample is mainly abrasive wear accompanied by delamination wear, while the wear mechanism of the original sample is mainly delamination wear. Under the higher load, the accumulation of frictional heat on the sample surface transforms the wear mechanisms of the original and the 2D-USBP treated samples into thermal wear.
Dynamic Characteristics of Rotor System with a Slant Crack Based on Fractional Damping
Zhinong Li, Yunlong Li, Dong Wang, Zhike Peng, Haifeng Wang
2021, 34: 27. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00543-w
[Abstract](498) [FullText HTML] (495) [PDF 6581KB](1)
The traditional modeling method of rotor system with a slant crack considers only integer-order calculus. However, the model of rotor system based on integer-order calculus can merely describe local characteristics, not historical dependent process. The occur of fractional order calculus just makes up for the deficiency in integer-order calculus. Therefore, a new dynamic model with a slant crack based on fractional damping is proposed. Here, the stiffness of rotor system with a slant crack is solved by zero stress intensity factor method. The proposed model is simulated by Runge-Kutta method and continued fraction Euler method. The influence of the fractional order, rotating speed, and crack depth on the dynamic characteristics of rotor system is discussed. The simulation results show that the amplitude of torsional excitation frequency increases significantly with the increase of the fractional order. With the increase of the rotating speed, the amplitude of first harmonic component becomes gradually larger, the amplitude of the second harmonic becomes smaller, while the amplitude of the other frequency components is almost invariant. The shaft orbit changes gradually from an internal 8-type shape to an ellipse-type shape without overlapping. With the increase of the slant crack depth, the amplitude of the transverse response frequency in the rotor system with a slant crack increases, and the amplitude in the second harmonic component also increases significantly. In addition, the torsional excitation frequency and other coupling frequency components also occur. The proposed model is further verified by the experiment. The valuable conclusion can provide an important guideline for the fault diagnosis of rotor system with a slant crack.
Multi-Branch Cable Harness Layout Design Based on Genetic Algorithm with Probabilistic Roadmap Method
Yingfeng Zhao, Jianhua Liu, Jiangtao Ma, Linlin Wu
2021, 34: 33. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00544-9
[Abstract](516) [FullText HTML] (507) [PDF 2320KB](7)
Current studies on cable harness layouts have mainly focused on cable harness route planning. However, the topological structure of a cable harness is also extremely complex, and the branch structure of the cable harness can affect the route of the cable harness layout. The topological structure design of the cable harness is a key to such a layout. In this paper, a novel multi-branch cable harness layout design method is presented, which unites the probabilistic roadmap method (PRM) and the genetic algorithm. First, the engineering constraints of the cable harness layout are presented. An obstacle-based PRM used to construct non-interference and near to the surface roadmap is then described. In addition, a new genetic algorithm is proposed, and the algorithm structure of which is redesigned. In addition, the operation probability formula related to fitness is proposed to promote the efficiency of the branch structure design of the cable harness. A prototype system of a cable harness layout design was developed based on the method described in this study, and the method is applied to two scenarios to verify that a quality cable harness layout can be efficiently obtained using the proposed method. In summary, the cable harness layout design method described in this study can be used to quickly design a reasonable topological structure of a cable harness and to search for the corresponding routes of such a harness.
Fatigue Resistance and Failure Behavior of Penetration and Non-Penetration Laser Welded Lap Joints
Xiangzhong Guo, Wei Liu, Xiqing Li, Haowen Shi, Zhikun Song
2021, 34: 39. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00557-4
[Abstract](509) [FullText HTML] (499) [PDF 3066KB](7)
Penetration and non-penetration lap laser welding is the joining method for assembling side facade panels of railway passenger cars, while their fatigue performances and the difference between them are not completely understood. In this study, the fatigue resistance and failure behavior of penetration 1.5+0.8-P and non-penetration 0.8+1.5-N laser welded lap joints prepared with 0.8 mm and 1.5 mm cold-rolled 301L plates were investigated. The weld beads showed a solidification microstructure of primary ferrite with good thermal cracking resistance, and their hardness was lower than that of the plates. The 1.5+0.8-P joint exhibited better fatigue resistance to low stress amplitudes, whereas the 0.8+1.5-N joint showed greater resistance to high stress amplitudes. The failure modes of 0.8+1.5-N and 1.5+0.8-P joints were 1.5 mm and 0.8 mm lower lap plate fracture, respectively, and the primary cracks were initiated at welding fusion lines on the lap surface. There were long plastic ribs on the penetration plate fracture, but not on the non-penetration plate fracture. The fatigue resistance stresses in the crack initiation area of the penetration and non-penetration plates calculated based on the mean fatigue limits are 408 MPa and 326 MPa, respectively, which can be used as reference stress for the fatigue design of the laser welded structures. The main reason for the difference in fatigue performance between the two laser welded joints was that the asymmetrical heating in the non-penetration plate thickness resulted in higher residual stress near the welding fusion line.
Special Issue on Healthcare Mechatronics
Support and Positioning Mechanism of a Detection Robot inside a Spherical Tank
Chunlei Tu, Shanshan Jin, Kai Zheng, Xingsong Wang, Sichong Sun
2021, 34: 5. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00522-7
[Abstract](2488) [FullText HTML] (2452) [PDF 2049KB](16)
Large pressure equipment needs to be tested regularly to ensure safe operation; wall-climbing robots can carry the necessary tools to inspect spherical tanks, such as cameras and non-destructive testing equipment. However, a wall-climbing robot inside a spherical tank cannot be accurately positioned owing to the particularity of the spherical tank structure. This paper proposes a passive support and positioning mechanism fixed in a spherical tank to improve the adsorption capacity and positioning accuracy of the inspection robot. The main body of the mechanism was designed as a truss composed of carbon fiber telescopic rods and can work in spherical tanks with diameters of 4.6?15.7 m. The structural strength, stiffness, and stability of the mechanism are analyzed via force and deformation simulations. By constructing a mathematical model of the support and positioning mechanism, the influence of structural deformation on the supporting capacity is analyzed and calculated. The robot positioning method based on the support and positioning mechanism can effectively locate the robot inside a spherical tank. Experiments verified the support performance and robot positioning accuracy of the mechanism. This research proposes an auxiliary support and positioning mechanism for a detection robot inside a spherical tank, which can effectively improve the positioning accuracy of the robot and meet the robotic inspection requirements.
Special Issue on Healthcare Mechatronics
Yan Shi, Qing Guo, Bin Zhang
2021, 34: 16. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00542-x
[Abstract](2534) [FullText HTML] (2471) [PDF 657KB](19)
Similar Vertices and Isomorphism Detection for Planar Kinematic Chains Based on Ameliorated Multi-Order Adjacent Vertex Assignment Sequence
Liang Sun, Zhizheng Ye, Fuwei Lu, Rongjiang Cui, Chuanyu Wu
2021, 34: 20. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00521-8
[Abstract](2565) [FullText HTML] (2466) [PDF 1789KB](9)
Isomorphism detection is fundamental to the synthesis and innovative design of kinematic chains (KCs). The detection can be performed accurately by using the similarity of KCs. However, there are very few works on isomorphism detection based on the properties of similar vertices. In this paper, an ameliorated multi-order adjacent vertex assignment sequence (AMAVS) method is proposed to seek out similar vertices and identify the isomorphism of the planar KCs. First, the specific definition of AMAVS is described. Through the calculation of the AMAVS, the adjacent vertex value sequence reflecting the uniqueness of the topology features is established. Based on the value sequence, all possible similar vertices, corresponding relations, and isomorphism discrimination can be realized. By checking the topological graph of KCs with a different number of links, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are verified. Finally, the method is employed to implement the similar vertices and isomorphism detection of all the 9-link 2-DOF(degree of freedom) planar KCs.
Control and Implementation of 2-DOF Lower Limb Exoskeleton Experiment Platform
Zhenlei Chen, Qing Guo, Huiyu Xiong, Dan Jiang, Yao Yan
2021, 34: 22. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00537-8
[Abstract](2511) [FullText HTML] (2466) [PDF 9527KB](17)
In this study, a humanoid prototype of 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) lower limb exoskeleton is introduced to evaluate the wearable comfortable effect between person and exoskeleton. To improve the detection accuracy of the human-robot interaction torque, a BPNN (backpropagation neural networks) is proposed to estimate this interaction force and to compensate for the measurement error of the 3D-force/torque sensor. Meanwhile, the backstepping controller is designed to realize the exoskeleton's passive position control, which means that the person passively adapts to the exoskeleton. On the other hand, a variable admittance controller is used to implement the exoskeleton's active follow-up control, which means that the person's motion is motivated by his/her intention and the exoskeleton control tries best to improve the human-robot wearable comfortable performance. To improve the wearable comfortable effect, serval regular gait tasks with different admittance parameters and step frequencies are statistically performed to obtain the optimal admittance control parameters. Finally, the BPNN compensation algorithm and two controllers are verified by the experimental exoskeleton prototype with human-robot cooperative motion.
Modeling and Simulation of an Invasive Mild Hypothermic Blood Cooling System
Na Wang, Qinghua Liu, Yan Shi, Shijun Wang, Xianzhi Zhang, Chengwei Han, Yixuan Wang, Maolin Cai, Xunming Ji
2021, 34: 23. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00541-y
[Abstract](2459) [FullText HTML] (2427) [PDF 1821KB](5)
Nowadays, mild hypothermia is widely used in the fields of post-cardiac arrest resuscitation, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, large-scale cerebral infarction, and craniocerebral injury. In this paper, a locally mixed sub-low temperature device is designed, and the cold and hot water mixing experiment is used to simulate the human blood transfer process. To set a foundation for the optimization of the heat transfer system, the static characteristics are analyzed by building the mathematic model and setting up the experimental station. In addition, the affection of several key structure parameters is researched. Through experimental and simulation studies, it can be concluded that, firstly, the mathematical model proved to be effective. Secondly, the results of simulation experiments show that 14.52 £C refrigeration can reduce the original temperature of 33.42 £C to 32.02 £C, and the temperature of refrigerated blood rises to 18.64 £C, and the average error is about 0.3 £C. Thirdly, as the thermal conductivity of the vascular sheath increases, the efficiency of the heat exchange system also increases significantly. Finally, as the input cold blood flow rate increases, the mass increases and the temperature of the mixed blood temperature decreases. It provides a research basis for subsequent research on local fixed-point sub-low temperature control technology.
Contact Stress Distribution of a Pear Cam Profile with Roller Follower Mechanism
Louay S. Yousuf, Nabil Hassan Hadi
2021, 34: 24. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00533-y
[Abstract](2638) [FullText HTML] (2565) [PDF 3358KB](11)
The problem of this paper is the high contact stress at the point of contact between the cam and the follower. A pear cam and roller follower mechanism were studied and analyzed for different position of the follower and different contact compression load. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of contact compression load on the contact stress distribution of the cam profile at the point of contact. Four different positions of the follower with the cam was considered (0£, 90£, 180£, and 270£). The theory of circular plate was applied to derive the analytic solution of the contact stress. The numerical simulation had been done using ANSYS Ver. 19.2 package to determine the contact stress, while SolidWorks software was used to investigate follower displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Four distinct values of the compression contact load, such as 3.121 N, 6.242 N, 9.364 N, and 12.485 N, were used in the numerical simulation. In the experiment setup, a photo-elastic technique was carried out in the field of polarized light to exhibit the stress distribution on the cam specimen. The annealed PSM-4 backalate material was used in the experiment setup. The experimental value of contact stress was checked and verified analytically and numerically at the point of contact. The innovation in this paper the use of spring-damper system which reduce the value of contact stress at the point of contact. The contact stress was maximum 2.136 MPa when the follower located at 270£ with the cam, while the contact stress was minimum 1.802 MPa when the follower located at 180£ at compression load 12.485 N.
Control Performance Evaluation of Serial Urology Manipulator by Virtual Prototyping
Hu Shi, Jiajie Li, Lianjie Guo, Xuesong Mei
2021, 34: 25. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00534-x
[Abstract](2662) [FullText HTML] (2550) [PDF 3105KB](37)
Prostatic hyperplasia and tumor are common diseases, and the minimally invasive surgery inserting the instruments through the urethra into the prostate is commonly conducted. Taking the robotic manipulator for such surgery into consideration, this paper analyses the workspace of the end effector, and proposes the distribution error of the fixed point and the tracking error of manipulator end effector on the cone bottom surface of the workspace as the basis for control implementation of the manipulator. The D-H coordinate system of the manipulator is established and the trajectory planning of the end effector in the Cartesian space is carried out. The digital model was established, and dynamics simulation was performed in Solidworks and Matlab/Simulink environment to guide the manipulator design. Trajectory mapping and synchronization control between virtual model and the actual manipulator are realized based on digital twin technique. The virtual manipulator can reflect the real-time state of the manipulator with data interaction by comparing the dynamics simulation results with the motor current values obtained by experiment. Experiment was carried out with PD feedback control and NewtonɃEuler dynamics based feedforward control to get the trajectory tracking characteristic of each motor, errors of the fixed point and tracking performance of the end effector of the manipulator. The results show that compared with PD feedback control, feed forward control implementation can achieve a reduction of 30.0% in the average error of the fixed point of the manipulator and a reduction of 33.3% in the maximum error.
Actuation Spaces Synthesis of Lower-Mobility Parallel Mechanisms Based on Screw Theory
Shihua Li, Yanxia Shan, Jingjun Yu, Yaxiong Ke
2021, 34: 28. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00546-7
[Abstract](2763) [FullText HTML] (2541) [PDF 1597KB](97)
The lower-mobility parallel mechanism has been widely used in the engineering field due to its numerous excellent characteristics. However, little work has been devoted to the actuator selection and placement that best satisfy the system's functional requirements during concept design. In this study, a unified approach for synthesizing the actuation spaces of both rigid and flexure parallel mechanisms has been presented, and all possible combinations of inputs could be obtained, laying a theoretical foundation for the subsequent optimization of inputs. According to the linear independence of actuation space and constraint space of the lower-mobility parallel mechanism, a general expression of actuation spaces in the format of screw systems is deduced, a unified synthesis process for the lower-mobility parallel mechanism is derived, and the efficiency of the method is validated with two selective examples based on screw theory. This study presents a theoretical framework for the input selection problems of parallel mechanisms, aiming to help designers select and place actuators in a correct and even optimal way after the configuration design.
One Novel Hydraulic Actuating System for the Lower-Body Exoskeleton
Maowen Sun, Xiaoping Ouyang, Jouni Mattila, Huayong Yang, Gang Hou
2021, 34: 31. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00535-w
[Abstract](2446) [FullText HTML] (2431) [PDF 2943KB](6)
The hydraulic exoskeleton is one research hotspot in the field of robotics, which can take heavy load due to the high power density of the hydraulic system. However, the traditional hydraulic system is normally centralized, inefficient, and bulky during application, which limits its development in the exoskeleton. For improving the robotos performance, its hydraulic actuating system should be optimized further. In this paper a novel hydraulic actuating system (HAS) based on electric-hydrostatic actuator is proposed, which is applied to hip and knee joints. Each HAS integrates an electric servo motor, a high-speed micro pump, a specific tank, and other components into a module. The specific parameters are obtained through relevant simulation according to human motion data and load requirements. The dynamic models of the HAS are built, and validated by the system identification. Experiments of trajectory tracking and human-exoskeleton interaction are carried out, which demonstrate the proposed HAS has the ability to be applied to the exoskeleton. Compared with the previous prototype, the total weight of the HAS in the robot is reduced by about 40%, and the power density is increased by almost 1.6 times.
Smart Materials
Interfacial Morphology and Bonding Mechanism of Explosive Weld Joints
Tingting Zhang, Wenxian Wang, Zhifeng Yan, Jie Zhang
2021, 34: 8. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00495-7
[Abstract](502) [FullText HTML] (502) [PDF 3328KB](10)
Interfacial structure greatly affects the mechanical properties of laminated plates. However, the critical material properties that impact the interfacial morphology, appearance, and associated bonding mechanism of explosive welded plates are still unknown. In this paper, the same base plate (AZ31B alloy) and different flyer metals (aluminum alloy, copper, and stainless steel) were used to investigate interfacial morphology and structure. SEM and TEM results showed that typical sine wave, wave-like, and half-wave-like interfaces were found at the bonding interfaces of Al/Mg, Cu/Mg and SS/Mg clad plates, respectively. The different interfacial morphologies were mainly due to the differences in hardness and yield strength between the flyer and base metals. The results of the microstructural distribution at the bonding interface indicated metallurgical bonding, instead of the commonly believed solid-state bonding, in the explosive welded clad plate. In addition, the shear strength of the bonding interface of the explosive welded Al/Mg, Cu/Mg and SS/Mg clad plates can reach up to 201.2 MPa, 147.8 MPa, and 128.4 MPa, respectively. The proposed research provides the design basis for laminated composite metal plates fabrication by explosive welding technology.
Unified Principal S–N Equation for Friction Stir Welding of 5083 and 6061 Aluminum Alloys
Xiangwei Li, Ji Fang, Xiaoli Guan
2021, 34: 15. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00531-0
[Abstract](474) [FullText HTML] (458) [PDF 2430KB](3)
With the popularization of friction stir welding (FSW), 5083-H321 and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy materials are widely used during the FSW process. In this study, the fatigue life of friction stir welding with two materials, i.e., 5083-H321 and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, are studied. Fatigue tests were carried out on the base metal of these two materials as well as on the butt joints and overlapping FSW samples. The principle of the equivalent structural stress method is used to analyze the FSW test data of these two materials. The fatigue resistances of these two materials were compared and a unified principal S–N curve equation was fitted. Two key parameters of the unified principal S–N curve obtained by fitting, Cd is 4222.5, and h is 0.2693. A new method for an FSW fatigue life assessment was developed in this study and can be used to calculate the fatigue life of different welding forms with a single S–N curve. Two main fatigue tests of bending and tension were used to verify the unified principal S–N curve equation. The results show that the fatigue life calculated by the unified mean 50% master S–N curve parameters are the closest to the fatigue test results. The reliability, practicability, and generality of the master S–N curve fitting parameters were verified using the test data. The unified principal S–N curve acquired in this study can not only be used in aluminum alloy materials but can also be applied to other materials.
Fabrication of Carbon Nanotubes and Rare Earth Pr Reinforced AZ91 Composites by Powder Metallurgy
Ning Li, Hong Yan, Qingjie Wu, Zeyu Cao
2021, 34: 26. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00545-8
[Abstract](1081) [FullText HTML] (1041) [PDF 3621KB](21)
It can be known from a large number of research results that improving the dispersibility of CNTs can effectively optimize the mechanical properties of the corresponding metal matrix composites. However, the crucial issue of increasing the bonding of CNTs and the matrix is still unsolved. In this paper, a novel method was developed to increase interfacial bonding strength by coating titanium oxide (TiO2) on the surface of CNTs. The rare earth Pr and TiO2@CNTs-reinforced AZ91matrix composites were successfully fabricated by powder metallurgy. Hot press sintering and hot extrusion of the milled powder was performed. After hot extrusion, the influence of TiO2@CNTs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results showed that the coating process can improve the distribution of CNTs in Mg alloy. The CNTs refined the grains of the matrix, and the CNTs were presented throughout the extrusion direction. When the TiO2@CNTs content was 1.0 wt.%, the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and elongation of the alloy attained maximum values. The values were improved by 23.5%, 82.1%, and 40.0%, respectively, when compared with the AZ91 alloy. Good interfacial bonding was achieved, which resulted in an effective tensile loading transfer at the interface. CNTs carried the tensile stress and were observed on the tensile fracture.
Comparison of Modified Mohr–Coulomb Model and Bai–Wierzbicki Model for Constructing 3D Ductile Fracture Envelope of AA6063
Jianye Gao, Tao He, Yuanming Huo, Miao Song, Tingting Yao, Wanbo Yang
2021, 34: 35. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00549-4
[Abstract](509) [FullText HTML] (503) [PDF 3320KB](3)
Ductile fracture of metal often occurs in the plastic forming process of parts. The establishment of ductile fracture criterion can effectively guide the selection of process parameters and avoid ductile fracture of parts during machining. The 3D ductile fracture envelope of AA6063-T6 was developed to predict and prevent its fracture. Smooth round bar tension tests were performed to characterize the flow stress, and a series of experiments were conducted to characterize the ductile fracture firstly, such as notched round bar tension tests, compression tests and torsion tests. These tests cover a wide range of stress triaxiality (ST) and Lode parameter (LP) to calibrate the ductile fracture criterion. Plasticity modeling was performed, and the predicted results were compared with corresponding experimental data to verify the plasticity model after these experiments. Then the relationship between ductile fracture strain and ST with LP was constructed using the modified Mohr–Coulomb (MMC) model and Bai-Wierzbicki (BW) model to develop the 3D ductile fracture envelope. Finally, two ductile damage models were proposed based on the 3D fracture envelope of AA6063. Through the comparison of the two models, it was found that BW model had better fitting effect, and the sum of squares of residual error of BW model was 0.9901. The two models had relatively large errors in predicting the fracture strain of SRB tensile test and torsion test, but both of the predicting error of both two models were within the acceptable range of 15%. In the process of finite element simulation, the evolution process of ductile fracture can be well simulated by the two models. However, BW model can predict the location of fracture more accurately than MMC model.
Prediction of Cross-Tension Strength of Self-Piercing Riveted Joints Using Finite Element Simulation and XGBoost Algorithm
Jianping Lin, Chengwei Qi, Hailang Wan, Junying Min, Jiajie Chen, Kai Zhang, Li Zhang
2021, 34: 36. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00551-w
[Abstract](1104) [FullText HTML] (1052) [PDF 4427KB](28)
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been widely used in automobile industry, and the strength prediction of SPR joints always attracts the attention of researchers. In this work, a prediction method of the cross-tension strength of SPR joints was proposed on the basis of finite element (FE) simulation and extreme gradient boosting decision tree (XGBoost) algorithm. An FE model of SPR process was established to simulate the plastic deformations of rivet and substrate materials and verified in terms of cross-sectional dimensions of SPR joints. The residual mechanical field from SPR process simulation was imported into a 2D FE model for the cross-tension testing simulation of SPR joints, and cross-tension strengths from FE simulation show a good consistence with the experiment result. Based on the verified FE model, the mechanical properties and thickness of substrate materials were varied and then used for FE simulation to obtain cross-tension strengths of a number of SPR joints, which were used to train the regression model based on the XGBoost algorithm in order to achieve prediction for cross-tension strength of SPR joints. Results show that the cross-tension strengths of SPR steel/aluminum joints could be successfully predicted by the XGBoost regression model with a respective error less than 7.6% compared to experimental values.
Experimental Investigation on Micro Deep Drawing of Stainless Steel Foils with Different Microstructural Characteristics
Jingwei Zhao, Tao Wang, Fanghui Jia, Zhou Li, Cunlong Zhou, Qingxue Huang, Zhengyi Jiang
2021, 34: 40. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00556-5
[Abstract](467) [FullText HTML] (466) [PDF 2469KB](5)
In the present work, austenitic stainless steel (ASS) 304 foils with a thickness of 50 µm were first annealed at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100 ℃ for 1 h to obtain different microstructural characteristics. Then the effects of microstructural characteristics on the formability of ASS 304 foils and the quality of drawn cups using micro deep drawing (MDD) were studied, and the mechanism involved was discussed. The results show that the as-received ASS 304 foil has a poor formability and cannot be used to form a cup using MDD. Serious wrinkling problem occurs on the drawn cup, and the height profile distribution on the mouth and the symmetry of the drawn cup is quite non-uniform when the annealing temperature is 700 ℃. At annealing temperatures of 900 and 950 ℃, the drawn cups are both characterized with very few wrinkles, and the distribution of height profile, symmetry and mouth thickness are uniform on the mouths of the drawn cups. The wrinkling becomes increasingly significant with a further increase of annealing temperature from 950 to 1100 ℃. The optimal annealing temperatures obtained in this study are 900 and 950 ℃ for reducing the generation of wrinkling, and therefore improving the quality of drawn cups. With non-optimized microstructure, the distribution of the compressive stress in the circumferential direction of the drawn foils becomes inhomogeneous, which is thought to be the cause of the occurrence of localized deformation till wrinkling during MDD.
Original Article
Optimal Design of Novel Electromagnetic-Ring Active Balancing Actuator with Radial Excitation
Xin Pan, Xiaotian He, Haiqi Wu, Chuanlong Ju, Zhinong Jiang, Jinji Gao
2021, 34: 9. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00529-0
[Abstract](2469) [FullText HTML] (2447) [PDF 4652KB](6)
Imbalance vibration is a typical failure mode of rotational machines and has significant negative effects on the efficiency, accuracy, and service life of equipment. To automatically reduce the imbalance vibration during the operational process, different types of active balancing actuators have been designed and widely applied in actual production. However, the existing electromagnetic-ring active balancing actuator is designed based on an axial excitation structure which can cause structural instability and has low electromagnetic driving efficiency. In this paper, a novel radial excitation structure and the working principle of an electromagnetic-ring active balancing actuator with a combined driving strategy are presented in detail. Then, based on a finite element model, the performance parameters of the actuator are analyzed, and reasonable design parameters are obtained. Self-locking torque measurements and comparative static and dynamic experiments are performed to validate the self-locking torque and driving efficiency of the actuator. The results indicate that this novel active balancing actuator has sufficient self-locking torque, achieves normal step rotation at 2000 r/min, and reduces the driving voltage by 12.5%. The proposed novel balancing actuator using radial excitation and a combination of permanent magnets and soft-iron blocks has improved electromagnetic efficiency and a more stable and compact structure.
Model Parameter Transfer for Gear Fault Diagnosis under Varying Working Conditions
Chao Chen, Fei Shen, Jiawen Xu, Ruqiang Yan
2021, 34: 13. doi: 10.1186/s10033-020-00520-9
[Abstract](2511) [FullText HTML] (2454) [PDF 2227KB](20)
Gear fault diagnosis technologies have received rapid development and been effectively implemented in many engineering applications. However, the various working conditions would degrade the diagnostic performance and make gear fault diagnosis (GFD) more and more challenging. In this paper, a novel model parameter transfer (NMPT) is proposed to boost the performance of GFD under varying working conditions. Based on the previous transfer strategy that controls empirical risk of source domain, this method further integrates the superiorities of multi-task learning with the idea of transfer learning (TL) to acquire transferable knowledge by minimizing the discrepancies of separating hyperplanes between one specific working condition (target domain) and another (source domain), and then transferring both commonality and specialty parameters over tasks to make use of source domain samples to assist target GFD task when sufficient labeled samples from target domain are unavailable. For NMPT implementation, insufficient target domain features and abundant source domain features with supervised information are fed into NMPT model to train a robust classifier for target GFD task. Related experiments prove that NMPT is expected to be a valuable technology to boost practical GFD performance under various working conditions. The proposed methods provides a transfer learning-based framework to handle the problem of insufficient training samples in target task caused by variable operation conditions.
Weakness Ranking Method for Subsystems of Heavy-Duty Machine Tools Based on FMECA Information
Zhaojun Yang, Jinyan Guo, Hailong Tian, Chuanhai Chen, Yongfu Zhu, Jia Liu
2021, 34: 17. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00539-6
[Abstract](2438) [FullText HTML] (2430) [PDF 1496KB](5)
Heavy-duty machine tools are composed of many subsystems with different functions, and their reliability is governed by the reliabilities of these subsystems. It is important to rank the weaknesses of subsystems and identify the weakest subsystem to optimize products and improve their reliabilities. However, traditional ranking methods based on failure mode effect and critical analysis (FMECA) does not consider the complex maintenance of products. Herein, a weakness ranking method for the subsystems of heavy-duty machine tools is proposed based on generalized FMECA information. In this method, eight reliability indexes, including maintainability and maintenance cost, are considered in the generalized FMECA information. Subsequently, the cognition best worst method is used to calculate the weight of each screened index, and the weaknesses of the subsystems are ranked using a technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Finally, based on the failure data collected from certain domestic heavy-duty horizontal lathes, the weakness ranking result of the subsystems is obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. An improved weakness ranking method that can comprehensively analyze and identify weak subsystems is proposed herein for designing and improving the reliability of complex electromechanical products.
Interfacial Bonding Mechanism and Mechanical Performance of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites in Additive Manufacturing
Congze Fan, Zhongde Shan, Guisheng Zou, Li Zhan, Dongdong Yan
2021, 34: 21. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00538-7
[Abstract](2423) [FullText HTML] (2442) [PDF 2051KB](9)
The additive manufacturing of continuous fiber composites has the advantage of a high-precision and efficient forming process, which can realize the lightweight and integrated manufacturing of complex structures. However, many void defects exist between layers in the printing process of additive manufacturing; consequently, the bonding performance between layers is poor. The bonding neck is considered a key parameter for representing the quality of interfacial bonding. In this study, the formation mechanism of the bonding neck was comprehensively analyzed. First, the influence of the nozzle and basement temperatures on the printing performance and bonding neck size was measured. Second, CT scanning was used to realize the quantitative characterization of bonding neck parameters, and the reason behind the deviation of actual measurements from theoretical calculations was analyzed. When the nozzle temperature increased from 180 to 220 ℃, CT measurement showed that the bonding neck diameter increased from 0.29 to 0.34 mm, and the cross-sectional porosity reduced from 5.48% to 3.22%. Finally, the fracture mechanism was studied, and the influence of the interfacial bonding quality on the destruction process of the materials was determined. In conclusion, this study can assist in optimizing the process parameters, which improves the precision of the printing parts and performance between the layers.
Mechanism and Robotics
Research and Test of Three-Pulley Noncircular Synchronous Pulley Transmission Mechanism with Minimum Slack
Jianneng Chen, Xincheng Sun, Chuanyu Wu, Dadu Xiao, Jun Ye
2021, 34: 29. doi: 10.1186/s10033-021-00548-5
[Abstract](472) [FullText HTML] (476) [PDF 3138KB](5)
The noncircular synchronous belt drive mechanism has demonstrated certain achievements and has been used in special fields. Research regarding noncircular synchronous belt drive mechanisms has focused on optimization design and kinematic analysis in China, whereas two pulley noncircular synchronous belt transmissions have been developed overseas. However, owing to the noncircular characteristics of the belt pulley, the real-time variation in the belt length slack during the transmission of the noncircular synchronous belt is significant, resulting in high probabilities of skipping and vibration. In this study, a noncircular tensioning pulley is added to create a stable three-pulley noncircular synchronous belt driving mechanism and a good synchronous belt tensioning, with no skipping; hence, the non-uniform output characteristic of the driven pulley is consistent with the theoretical value. In the circular noncircular noncircular three-pulley noncircular synchronous belt mechanism, the pitch curve of the driving synchronous belt pulley is circular, whereas those of the driven synchronous belt and tensioning pulleys are noncircular. To minimize the slack of the belt length of the synchronous belt and the constraint of the concavity and circumference of the tensioning pulley, an automatic optimization model of the tensioning pulley pitch curve is established. The motion simulation, analysis, and optimization code for a three-belt-pulley noncircular synchronous belt drive mechanism is written, and the variation in belt length slack under different speed ratios is analyzed based on several examples. The testbed for a circular–noncircular–noncircular three-pulley noncircular synchronous belt transmission mechanism is developed. The test shows that the three-pulley noncircular synchronous belt drives well. This study proposes an automatic optimization algorithm for the tensioning pulley pitch curve of a noncircular synchronous belt transmission mechanism; it yields a stable transmission of the noncircular synchronous belt transmission mechanism as well as non-uniform output characteristics.